Epicurus concluded that the true state of happiness is the state of negative pleasure, an oxymoron that is basically the absence of unfulfilled desires. This idea is similar to the Buddhist concept of achieving Nirvana through the removal of desire—more about that later. Plato had a renowned pupil, Aristotle, who proposed that pleasure is made up of energeia , which includes many activities such as music, art , and thinking, all of which help us lead fulfilling lives. He said the amount of pleasure we experience depends on how ardently we pursue certain activities. For example, as a beginner violinist gets better, the satisfaction she gets from playing music will also increase.
Like his fellow philosophers, Aristotle believed some pleasures are greater than others.
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He ranked them as follows:. We humans, on the other hand, can apply these ancient musings to our modern-day Pleasure Principles when deciding which activities we would like to pursue. While we can look to philosophers and prophets to help us find the path to guilt-free pleasures, we can also pay attention to what some of the modern religious and secular thought leaders have to say about getting on board a higher plane to the high life.
In a recent interview with the Argentine publication Viva , Pope Francis offered advice for being a happier person, based on his own life experiences. He encouraged people to be more positive and generous, to turn off the TV and find healthier forms of leisure, and, refreshingly, to stop trying to convert people to your own particular beliefs. The following are his top ten tips for a happier life.
This is also one of the slogans that people in both AA and Al-Anon use to keep themselves grounded in their program of recovery. And stagnant water becomes putrid. The pope, a former high school literature teacher, used an example from an Argentine novel by Ricardo Guiraldes, in which the protagonist, rancher Don Segundo Sombra, looks back on how he lived his life. In the story Don Sombra proposes new ethical examples to a youth the author considered disoriented and restless, including this advice. A healthy sense of leisure. Sundays should be holidays.
Find innovative ways to create dignified jobs for young people. Respect and take care of nature. Stop being negative.
Work for peace. The Dalai Lama, another beloved spiritual leader who travels the world teaching his Tibetan brand of Buddhism, had this to say about how to achieve pleasure and happiness:.
The kind that sticks. So what defines someone as an optimist or a pessimist other than the glass-half-full-or empty test? Wherever you fall on the scale, professor of positivity Martin Seligman, director of the Positive Psychology Center at the University of Pennsylvania, says that optimism is a learned skill and that people can train themselves to be happier by changing the way they think and perceive the world.
He cites recent studies that have shown how optimistic people are happier, have more social support, and feel less stressed and less depressed. Like the Dali Llama, Seligman says optimists react to problems with a sense of confidence rather than with a sense of defeat e. Be aware of the thoughts you are thinking. Separate them from the situation, which is always neutral.
It is as it is. How still they are, how deeply rooted in Being.
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No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Introduction to Philosophy: God and the Good Life 1. How do you decide what to believe?
- The Philosophy of Happiness: Finding Pleasure in Your Life!
- Lesson 2: What disturbs your mind is not the event, but your judgement over that event..
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When is a belief justified? What do 1 owe to others? Are there objective moral truths?
What does the good life look like? Can God 's existence be demonstrated through rational argument? What would it take for My life to be meaningful? Happiness as pleasure Epicurus - subjective - emotion - based - temporary. Eudaimonia Aristotle - partly objective can sometimes be Wrong about how happy we are - character based - long - lasting 5.
Vice : a stable character trait that reliably disposes one to act badly. Aristotle rejects Stoic individualism we have full control Over our character. Conclusion : what the argument aims to establish. Not informative if it begs the question - circular - assumes the conclusion as true in premises Non - deductive Arguments : ' some deductively invalid arguments have legitimate force in reasoning - Lend support to the conclusion , even though they don't guarantee it 7. Preparing your debate argument. If you choose , G if there's time anticipate 1 respond to Objections Preparing Rebuttals.
Chart your opponents ' arguments while they 're being given. Athenian philosopher. Shifted the focus of philosophy onto ethics. How Can we care for the soul?
Committing vs. Suffering Injustice - It is better to suffer injustice than commit injustice - when I Suffer injustice , my body , property , Or reputation is harmed - When I commit an injustice , 1 harm my Soul Rene Descartes - Any Sense perception 1 can have when awake 1 Could also have in a dream 2. I Can't be certain I 'm not dreaming 3. I Can't be certain of any belief that comes from sense perception - Descartes ' evil demon : perhaps all my experiences are produced by an evil demon intent on deceiving me.
Moral Relativism G Absolutism. Moral relativism : moral truths are attitude - dependent E culturally relative. Moral absolutism : at least some moral truths are altitude independent E apply universally. Moral truths. Absolutists : moral truths are discovered , not created. Moral relativists : Moral truths are created , not discovered Arguments for moral relativism - Cultural imperialism argument - moral absolutism is dogmatic , arrogant. There are Objective moral truths. If there are objective moral truths , then God must exist - some atheists go in the other direction - moral absolutists have also claimed that moral truths are based on human nature - humans have built in purpose telos - right actions are those that promote teks Kantian Ethics Immanuel Kant What is good without qualification?
Duty vs. Maxim : a principle of action that combines a command L " do X " together With a reason for acting " in Order to Y " Where does moral law Come from? Human Rights.
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