Powered by the DLA. This collection contains a small selection of his writings and research about these topics. Cite as: [Item identification and date], [Series info. PDF Version:. Processing Information These materials were arranged and described by Merle Chamberlain. Papers, Scope and Content Note The Papers consist of published and unpublished typescripts and manuscripts, notes, photographs, and sketches. Arrangement Alphabetical by title of article or subject. Publications material. China marks. Chinese sgraffito plate.
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Phots and notes. Glossary of ceramic terms for Walpole Society. Ironwork - American. Photographs, correspondence, notes. Mexican art. Paste-ups, correspondence with Scribner's. Mexican majolicirca Photos and printed plates. Miscellaneous material on pottery. Pictures of slip-decorated and other ware; Pennsylvania potters.
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Ships in 7 to 10 business days. Link Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed. Description Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! In Stock. Harry Potter Pensieve Memory Set. Rare Record Price Guide Garage Project The Art of Beer. Sake is produced by the multiple parallel fermentation of rice. The rice is first polished to remove the protein and oils from the exterior of the rice grains, leaving behind starch. Thorough milling leads to fewer congeners and generally a more desirable product.
Newly polished rice is allowed to "rest" until it has absorbed enough moisture from the air so that it will not crack when immersed in water. After this resting period, the rice is washed clean of the rice powder produced during milling and then steeped in water. The length of time depends on the degree to which the rice was polished, ranging from several hours or even overnight for an ordinary milling to just minutes for highly polished rice. After soaking, the rice is steamed on a conveyor belt.
The degree of cooking must be carefully controlled; overcooked rice will ferment too quickly for flavors to develop well, and undercooked rice will ferment only on the outside. The steamed rice is then cooled and divided into portions for different uses. The microorganism Aspergillus oryzae a mold is sprinkled onto the steamed rice and allowed to ferment for 5—7 days Uno et al.get link
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This staggered approach allows time for the yeast to keep up with the increased volume. Unlike malt for beer, rice for sake does not contain the amylase necessary for converting starch to sugar; it must undergo a process of multiple fermentation. The addition of A. After fermentation, sake is extracted from the solid mixtures through a filtration process.
Next, the remaining lees a fine sediment are removed, and the sake is carbon filtered and pasteurized. Like other brewed beverages, sake tends to benefit from a period of storage. Nine to twelve months are required for sake to mature. Maturation is caused by physical and chemical factors such as oxygen supply, the broad application of external heat, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes and amino acids, among other unknown factors. While modern breweries with refrigeration and cooling tanks operate year-round, most old-fashioned sake breweries are seasonal, operating only in the cool winter months.
There are eight varieties of special-designation sake. The four main grades of sake are junmai , honjozo , ginjo and daijingo. The label on a bottle of sake gives a rough indication of its taste. As the proportion of amino acids rises, the sake tastes more savory.
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Sake can have many flavor notes , such as fruits, flowers, herbs, and spices. Typically, hot sake is a winter drink, and high-grade sake is not drunk hot, because the flavors and aromas will be lost. This masking of flavor is the reason that low-quality and old sake is often served hot. This is very common for hot sake, where the flask is heated in hot water and the small cups ensure that the sake does not get cold in the cup, but may also be used for chilled sake. This has relaxed in recent years, but is generally observed on more formal occasions, such as business meals, and is still often observed for the first drink.
Another traditional cup is the masu , a box usually made of hinoki or sugi , which was originally used for measuring rice. In some Japanese restaurants, as a show of generosity, the server may put a glass inside the masu or put the masu on a saucer and pour until sake overflows and fills both containers. Saucer-like cups called sakazuki are also used, most commonly at weddings and other ceremonial occasions, such as the start of the year or at the beginning of a kaiseki meal. In more modern restaurants wine glasses are also used, and recently footed glasses made specifically for premium sake have also come into use.
Traditionally sake is heated immediately before serving, but today restaurants may buy sake in boxes which can be heated in a specialized hot sake dispenser, thus allowing hot sake to be served immediately, though this is detrimental to the flavor. There are also a variety of devices for heating sake and keeping it warm, beyond the traditional tokkuri. Aside from being served straight, sake can be used as a mixer for cocktails , such as tamagozake , saketinis or nogasake.
The Japanese Sake Association encourages people to drink chaser water for their health, and the water is called Yawaragi-mizu. Traditionally sake was brewed only in the winter. While it can now be brewed year-round, there is still seasonality associated with sake, particularly artisanal ones. The leaves start green, but turn brown over time, reflecting the maturation of the sake. These are now hung outside many restaurants serving sake. There is not traditionally a notion of vintage of sake — it is generally drunk within the year, and if aged, it does not vary significantly from year to year.
Today, with influence from wine vintages, some breweries label sake intended for aging with a vintage, but this is otherwise rare. In general, it is best to keep sake refrigerated in a cool or dark room, as prolonged exposure to heat or direct light will lead to spoilage.
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In addition, sake stored at relatively high temperature can lead to formation of dicetopiperazine , a cyclo Pro-Leu that makes it bitter as it ages  Sake has high microbiological stability due to its high content of ethanol. However, incidences of spoilage have been known to occur. One of the microoganisms implicated in this spoilage is lactic acid bacteria LAB that has grown tolerant to ethanol and is referred to as hiochi-bacteria.
After opening a bottle of sake, it is best consumed within 2 or 3 hours. This is because once premium sake is opened it begins to oxidize, which affects the taste. If the sake is kept in the refrigerator for more than 3 days, it will lose its "best" flavor. However, this does not mean it should be disposed of if not consumed.
Generally, sake can keep very well and still taste just fine after weeks in the refrigerator.
How long a sake will remain drinkable depends on the quality of the product, and whether it is sealed with a vacuum top which removes air and helps decrease oxidation. Sake is often consumed as part of Shinto purification rituals. People drink Omiki with gods to communicate with them and to solicit rich harvests the following year.
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