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In the presence of Castilleja linariaefolia , selection on floral traits in Ipomopsis aggregata was shaped by competition for pollination Caruso Selection on plant height in Cypripedium acaule varied with the proximity of ericaceous shrubs O'Connell and Johnston , and selection on flowering phenology in the herb Campanulastrum americanum was contingent on shaded areas in the population Kilkenny and Galloway Finally, in one of the few previous studies to manipulate two ecological factors simultaneously, Moeller and Geber showed that traits promoting reproductive assurance in Clarkia xantiana were favored in small populations isolated from congeners, but not in large populations or when congeners were present.
To summarize, both experimental and correlative approaches suggest that spatial variation in vegetation context may often be associated with differences in the strength of selection on floral traits.
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Patterns of selection on floral traits may differ between sex functions in hermaphroditic plants Hodgins and Barrett We did not quantify effects of vegetation context on selection via male fitness in D. It is thus likely that selection estimates based on pollen removal would parallel those via female function, and that the strength of selection also via male fitness is reduced in short vegetation.
The flowering of D. Because D. Johnson et al. The observed reduction in pollen limitation in short vegetation compared to tall vegetation thus suggests that the effects of reduced vegetation height per se dominated over any reduced facilitation mediated by closely located rewarding plants. Vegetation removal could lead to increased resource availability through a reduction in interspecific competition Leger and Rice In contrast, cutting of the surrounding vegetation did not increase seed output of D.
This suggests that vegetation removal had minor effects on resource availability, or that female fitness was not resource limited, at least not in the year of study. Sletvold, unpublished data , indicating that prevailing resource levels allow maximal fruit set. Understanding adaptive evolution requires insight in the phenotypic traits subject to selection and the ecological factors that cause selection, something that remains a challenge in most systems MacColl The present study demonstrates that crossed manipulations of environmental factors can provide a quantitative understanding of how the importance of a given selective agent varies with environmental context, and we suggest that such experiments will be particularly useful for improved insights in the causes of natural selection.
Sletvold , and the Swedish Research Council J. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries other than missing content should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.
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Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Supporting Information. Literature Cited. Fortunel , and J. Selection on floral display in insect-pollinated Primula farinosa : effects of vegetation height and litter accumulation. Oecologia : — Google Scholar. Citing Literature. Volume 94 , Issue 6 June Pages Figures References Related Information.
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