Apollonia is certainly st. Valentine, martyr feastday on the 14th , here possibly confused as for the attribute with an Italian bishop with the same name, who in fact may be only a doublet of the Valentine above. But the central male figure next to st. Peter, for all his attribute a club or sledge-hammer? Eleuterius, knocked down to death with clubs while preaching among the Arian heretics in Tournay feastday on the 20th. Mildred from the convent at Minster in Thanet ags.
Mildthryth; died c. Mildburga ags. Mildburh; died c. But we are far from feeling confident that these identifications are correct. You may easily pick out a big comb for st. Matthias apostle 24th of February at the upper right-hand corner. A quick comparative look at the pages of April in our Bologna calendar figure 7 and in the Paris runbok calendar figure 8 shows that, given some occasional differences in the figures of Saints and feastdays, they have great similarities and the same basic design.
Figure 7. Drawing by Author We can consider the right-hand side of the boards, for instance, and pick out st. Theodore of Sykeon in Galatia feastday on the 22nd as the male figure in the middle, dressed as a monk but holding a pastoral staff on the Bologna calendar and a monastery or church building on the Paris calendar, where he is also connected with a little man-head wearing a mitre in fact, Theodore was bishop for ten years, founded many monasteries, but then gave up his office and died as a monk ; st.
Mark evangelist feastday on the 25th , represented with or as a lion, a cross and on the Bologna calendar also wings, in both cases marked with a fish two on the Paris calendar as a sign of the vigiliae, meaning that it was a solemn feast and the faithful should not have eaten meat. By the way, we can consider the simpler structure of the Paris exemplar with reference to the calendar computing data, because in fact only the old golden number series is given in the line below the Sunday letters.
When we come to the months of June and July, very interesting clues can be found with reference to the feastdays recorded on the Bologna calendar, above all concerning its possible Scandinavian connections or, in other words, its relationship to genuine Scandinavian runstavar. Figure 9. Drawing by Author. Figure Boniface, bishop and martyr feastday on the 5th ; st. Barnabas on the 11th ; a tripod for st.
Vitus martyr on the 15th ; st. Botolph ags.
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Botulf; feastday on the 17th ; a lamb for st. John the Baptist feastday for his birth on the 24th ; a hammer for st. Eligius bishop translatio on the 25th ; a key for st. Peter on the 29th , and a sword for st. Paul on the 30th.
If now we turn to our Bologna calendar, we find basically the same feastdays selection, though the figures prove more elaborate in design and increased in number. We distinguish st. Boniface, with the mitre and a crosier instead of the pastoral staff to mean that he was apostle among the Germans; here he is shown between st. Justin, apologist and martyr feastday on the 1st; dressed as a layman, as he was in fact all his life , and a bishop, possibly st.
Medard of Noyon, or st. William of York, or any other of the many bishops celebrated on the 8th of June. Barnabas apostle on the 11th is represented with an axe and a book in his hands, the axe being the tool of his martyrdom according to some traditional versions of his life. John the Baptist holding a lamb with the nimbus on the 24th see the fish for the vigilia on the day before ; st. Eligius bishop holding a hammer on the 25th ; st.
Peter leader of the apostles holding a book and a big key on the 29th again with a fish for the vigilia on the previous day ; st. Paul with a sword hanging at his side on the 30th. Investigation of feastdays on the Bologna July page plate 19 is even more interesting from the point of view of comparison with proper Scandinavian calendar tradition.
In the space above these lines, feastday marks are found as usual, with the addition of possible seasonal i. We can distinguish the festival for the Visitation of the Virgin Mary on the 2nd of July; st. Knut with the regal crown, a knot with reference to the name; cfr. Margareth with the dragon on the 20th ; st. Mary 20 Cfr. James the Greater with the pilgrim stick and the hat with a cockle shell on the 25th ; st.
Botvid martyr and preacher in Sweden, killed at sea in the Baltic a fish on the 28th ; st. Olaf with the regal crown and an axe on the 29th ; and st. Elene sved. A little blue circle marks the evil days here the 15th and the 17th and in the bottom left-hand corner there is a kringla lat. The Swedish origin of the calendar is not to be questioned, as one can clearly infer from the identity of a number of Saints celebrated in July.
King Knut of Denmark and King Olaf of Norway, first of all, are the most obvious evidence of a Scandinavian tradition: if their feastdays are not recorded in a given almanac, this can by no means be counted as Nordic. If we now turn to the Bologna calendar, we can find both similarities and differences when feastday figures and general calendar outline are considered. Margareth virgin and martyr, with the dragon on the 20th , st.
Mary Magdalen with long hair and a little ointment jar on the 22nd. No traces are found of Knut, Olaf, Botvid or Elene; but the space is otherwise full of glorious and widely venerated Saints, such as st. Martin armed figure on horseback with sword, next to a mantle-wearing man; translatio corporis on the 4th ; st. Christine, virgin and martyr, holding an arrow on the 24th ; st.
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Anne teaching young Virgin Mary on the 26th. From the point of view of calendar computation data, and graphic and overall design, nevertheless, we may say that both calendars share important features and prove much more similar to each other than usual among almanacs that are so different in type and function.
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So that, in the end, it can be held to stand halfway between the epigraphic and the manuscript calendar production, together with the few other runbokar of the same kind we have already talked about, for instance from Copenhagen and Paris. A close investigation of the calendar features and religious festivals in the last two months of the year will be our next concern here.
Villehado, Anglo-Saxon bishop of Bremen, on the 8th; a chalice for st.
Martin bishop on the 11th; st. Clement, who, according to a legendary tradition, was lashed to an anchor and thrown into the sea in Crimea on the 23rd ; a spiked wheel for st. Catherine of Alexandria, martyr, on the 25th; and st. Andrew apostle with an X-shaped cross on the 30th. The Copenhagen wooden rimbok proves much more articulated in both graphic and picture contents, being organized in exactly the same way as our Bologna calendar. Hubert, bishop and missionary, soon regarded as patron Saint of hunters and trappers in Ardenne, here on horseback blowing a big hunting horn feastday on the 3rd ; st.
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